The city of london is now the home of the Government of the UK and the countries monetary centre. It is located on the banks of the River Thames within southeast Britain. The town of London was founded by the Roman empire in 43 AD and they governed there until the 5th century AD, when the Roman Empire declined. The Roman empire called it Londinium and had a population then of 50,000. The city became an important trading port. Londinium declined in the fifth century resulting from repeated Anglo-Saxon invasions. In the 8th century the city became the capital for the Kingdom of Essx. There was many Viking attacks throughout the ninth century with lots of suffering in that time period. Danish settlers subsequently set up themselves in the area resulting in an increase in trade and enterprises in the town. As the wealth and strength of this building urban centre amplified it attracted the attention from the Danish Great Heathen Army which took control of the town and seized by King Alfred the Great in 886. Right after the Norman attack and conquering of England in 1067, the revolutionary King of England, William Duke of Normandy developed the city's existing rights, laws and regulations as well as liberties. He additionally constructed the landmark Tower of London. From that point in 1199, King John strengthened the city's self-government. After 1215 London was able to choose a different mayor every year.
During the fourteenth and fifteenth century, London’s shipping port became a European heart for the circulation of commodities, particularly as a result of industry in textiles. Within the sixteenth to seventeenth century with rule with the Tudors, London benefited from the central politics and the increased seafaring trade which was continued with the Stuarts. During this period the city had 100,000 inhabitants and by the mid-17th century the population had grown to over 500,000. By 1665, the city’s bad living circumstances as a result of insufficient city planning ended up the reason for the Great Plague establishing itself that wiped out about 70,000 individuals. The following year, a substantial fire burnt down most of the london. The reconstruction of London took more than a decade to end, with the growth and development of major works such as St. Paul’s Cathedral raised the advantage of London. This concluded in London becoming the heart of British social life with palaces, halls, theatres as well as galleries and museums unparalleled in other places. The city grew even larger, especially with the setting up for the Bank of England back in 1694 that brought about London’s growth as a major economic center.
Most of current London originates from the Victorian period. The Industrial Revolution attracted huge numbers of people into the city, significantly expanding the city with the inhabitants increased from 700,000 in 1750 to around 4,500,000 in 1901. These overcrowded challenges did cause the 1832 cholera pandemic as well as the huge smell in 1858 due to sewerage concerns in the heat. After a continuous time period with not lots of alternation in the population of the capital began to drop at the end of The First World War and fell below 3.5 million by 1950. Bordering suburban regions expanded continuously during that time period. Back in 1963 London was divided up into local government areas in the original town and a further 32 metropolitan districts surrounding this.